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Journal 'Cytokines & inflammation', 2006, No. 1

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Number 1'2006

INFLUENZA A (H5N1) VIRUS AS ONE OF THE POSSIBLE AGENTS OF THE FUTURE PANDEMIC

A.A. Sominina, E.V. Sorokin, T.R. Tsareva, I.E. Korenyako

Emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus resulted in a disastrous global epizootics which to date involved many countries of Asia, Europe and Africa. This agent has acquired capacity to induce severe respiratory diseases among humans with more than 50 % mortality. The diseases were accompanied by development of severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cytokine disregulation and multiorgan disfunction. Recent molecular-genetic investigations demonstrated that influenza A(H5N1) virus evolves actively with new multiple mutations and re-assortation with other avian influenza viruses at the same time retaining high pathogenicity for primary host and a number of mammalians including humans. Major determinants of pathogenicity of influenza A (H5N1) virus are located both in HA molecule, in a distinctive set of basic amino acids in the cleavage site, and in NS1 and PB2 proteins. As a result of permanent adaptation to humans accompanied by changes in receptor-binding site of HA molecule emergence of a virus capable to cause the severest pandemic of XXI century poses a real threat. All mentioned above determine necessity of strengthening of epidemiological and clinical-laboratory surveillance of this infection with rapid molecular-genetic characterization of isolated agents in order to control adaptation and pathogenicity markers which would require combined efforts of the scientists throughout the world as well as pandemic preparedness both on national and global levels. (Cytokines and Inflammation. 2006. Vol. 5, N 1. P. 3-10.)

Keywords: influenza Ђ (H5N1) virus, pandemic, epidemiology, pathogenicity.

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